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Writing & Citing : APA


Confidentiality Versus Clarity

With interviewees and personal conversation, APA clashes with the principles of transparency versus confidentiality.  This is why the attribution to a personal communication is in the text as an in-text citation only and not at then end in the references section.

The APA Blog Style explanation in full is here.  These issues are well-covered in the APA Ethics Code.

First as yourself and the subject(s), do you mind being identified?  If not, consider using the following to identify them.

1) Their role ( doctor, patient, respondent..)
2) Nick name or Pseudoym ( "John,"  Participant A, MN ..)


It is customary to ask participant(s) who doesn't mind being identified to sign a document stating that issue.  Ask your Professor if that is necessary for a class project.

If that is acceptable, use this simple format.  (personal communication, Month Day, Year)


Dr. Phyllis Jackson (personal communication, October 1, 2016) felt the salt content in many canned soups was misleading to consumers. 

Nothing will appear in the references.