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APA: Article Without DOI: Explanation & Example

When citing academic journal articles, they either end with a Digital Object Identifier or with the URL of the publication. This explains and provides and example for the latter.


Elements that Make Up an APA Citation


Kumar, S. & Thondikulam, G.

Diagram of an article without DOIPublication date:

Title of article:
Knowledge management in a collaborative business framework.

Journal that contains the article:
Information Knowledge Systems Management

Volume number, issue number and page numbers:
2015 (Issue number if there was one), 1-22.

Retrieved from information:
The DOI or the URL of the Journal:

Retrieved from





APA without DOI. Examples.



Examples of In-Text Citations



Examples of in-text citations

American Psychological Association, 6th edition.
7.01 Periodicals, pp. 198-202.


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