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Dental Hygiene

Library resources for research in Dental Hygiene (DEH) courses

Getting Started

What is APA?

APA style consists of rules about how to document the sources used in your project or mentioned in your writing.

APA is most commonly used to cite sources used in writing in psychology and most sciences (natural and social sciences.)  Below are several examples of references-page citations and in-text citations. If still unclear, please contact your campus librarian or use the Ask A Librarian tab to ask a question by chat.


Why do we need to learn citations?

A key concept in academic work, especially the sciences, is extensive documentation. Not only does it show integrity (avoiding plagiarism) but it is important in healthcare practices that other people be able to review your work, review the resources that you used to make the decisions you made, and check where you got the information. This is not just a question of honesty, its about passing on accurate information, and in the health sciences, accuracy is safety.


How to Cite in APA

(Frequently used examples)


1) Articles from journals found in the databases:

Article without DOI:
Author Last Name, First/Middle Name Initials. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle. Journal Title, volume(issue), pp-pp.  
Article with DOI:
Author Last Name, First/Middle Name Initials. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle. Journal Title, volume(issue), pp-pp. https://doi 




Jackson-Collins, C., Boyd, L. D., & Jenkins, S. J. (2022). Clinical dental hygienists’ experience returning to work after closure of dental offices due to COVID-19: A qualitative study. Journal of Dental Hygiene96(6), 6–14.

Hakeberg M, & Cunha L. (2008). Dental anxiety and pain related to dental hygienist treatment. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica66(6), 374–379.


In-Text Parenthetical Citation (in your paper):

3 or more authors:

(Jackson-Collins et al., 2022)

1 or 2 authors:

(Hakeberg & Cunha, 2008)


2) Books

With an author:
Author Last Name, First/Middle Initials. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (edition). Publisher. 
With an editor:
Editor Last Name, First/Middle Initials (Ed.). (Year). Book title: Subtitle (edition). Publisher.




Beemsterboer, P. (2010). Ethics and law in dental hygiene (2nd ed.). Saunders/Elsevier.

Thomson, E. M. (Ed.). (2013). Case studies in dental hygiene (3rd ed.). Pearson.



(Beemsterboer, 2010)

(Thomson, 2013)


3) Chapter in an Edited Book (different editor and chapter's author)

Author Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of the chapter. In Editor's Initial & Last Name (Ed.), Title of the Book (ed., pp.). Publisher.




Frencken, J. E. (2016). Dental caries and caries epidemiology. In E. Eden (Ed.), Evidence-based caries prevention (pp. 1-11). Springer.



(Frencken, 2016)



*NOTE: In this page we are not showing the proper formatting, but in a Word document page, your paper and References page have to follow a specific format, and the citations should be listed with "hanging indentations". Check this page regarding formatting of the paper.

How to cite in APA style

Find more rules and examples in this SCF Librarians APA Guide 

Use the TABS on the top of the guide for how to cite specific documents

The following are additional guides (not SCF Libraries) available on the web:

APA Manual

The official APA Manual is a book that can be checked out from the SCF Libraries:

The official guide to APA 7th Edition. Easy to use and very comprehensive, covering everything from when to indent or bold headings to citing an image without a listed creator or title.

Literature Review and Writing Resources