Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
 

Archive: APA 6th Edition: In-Text Citations

General Format

Guidelines:

  • In-text citations are placed within the body of the paper.
  • Each citation should correspond to an entry on the References page.
  • General citations follow an author, date, page number format.
  • Page numbers are only required for direct quotation in-text citation, can be omitted for paraphrasing.
  • A signal phrase can be used to introduce the citation, in place of full parenthetical at the end.

 

APA In Text Citation:

(Author, Date, Page Number).

Quotation: (Duhigg, 2016, p. 48).

Paraphrase: (Duhigg, 2016) OR According to Duhigg (2016), ...

Other Formats

Lecture/Presentation:

(Presenter Last Name, Date)

Personal Communication (email, interview):

(First Name, Last Name [format of communication], Date).

Citing Images

When citing images under the image in-text (including Powepoint slides):

Basic Format:

Figure X. An explanation or description of figure. Reprinted [or adapted] from Book Title (page number), by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Last Name, Year, Place of Publication: Publisher. 

Figure From a Website:

Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted] from Title of Website, by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Last Name, Year, Retrieved from URL.

Format Variations

Two Authors:

(Author Last Name & Author Last Name, Year).

(Weber & Kelley, 2014).

Three to Seven Authors:

List all authors as they appear in References, with "&" before last author name.

(London, Wieland Ladewig, Davidson, Ball, McGillis Bindler, & Cowen, 2017). 

*Note: subsequent citations can use (London, et.al., 2017). 

More Than Seven Authors:

(Author Last Name, et.al., Year).

Unknown Author:

(Book Title [shortened if needed], Year).

(Merriam-Webster's, 2016).

Organization as Author:

(Name of Organization [acronym], Year).

(American Psychological Association [APA], 2010).

*Note: subsequent citations may use (APA, 2010). 

Edited Book, No Author:

*For in-text citations, use editor names in place of author names.

(Editor Last Name & Editor Last Name, Year).

(Catapano & Critchley, 2016).

Chapter From Anthology:

*When citing chapter from anthology, use the chapter author as the author, not the editors. 

(Chapter Author Last Name, Year).

(Glaspell, 2016).