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Archive: APA 6th Edition: APA help with IHI: Institute of Healthcare Improvement

What is IHI?


The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), an independent not-for-profit organization based in Boston, Massachusetts, is a leading innovator, convener, partner, and driver of res​ults in health and health care improvement worldwide. At our core, we believe everyone should get the best care and health possible. This passionate belief fuels our mission to improve health and health care.

For more than 25 years, we have partnered with visionaries, leaders, and front-line practitioners around the globe to spark bold, inventive ways to improve the health of individuals and populations. To advance our mission, IHI's work is focused in five key areas:

  •  Improvement Capability: Ensuring that improvement science drives our work and that we extend the reach and impact of the improvement community
  •  Person- and Family-Centered Care: Putting the patient and the family at the heart of every decision and empowering them to be genuine partners in their care
  •  Patient Safety: Making care continually safer by reducing harm and preventable mortality
  •  Quality, Cost, and Value: Driving affordability and sustainability through quality improvement
  •  Triple Aim for Populations: Applying integrated approaches to simultaneously improve care, improve population health, and reduce costs per capita

We create dynamic opportunities for health care professionals to learn from, collaborate with, and be inspired by expert faculty and colleagues throughout the world. Ourprofessional development programs — including conferences, seminars, and audio and web-based programs — inform every level of the workforce, from executive leaders to front-line staff. The IHI Open School is committed to developing students, the next generation of improvers, through free online courses and an international network of chapters. For all who join us in improving health care, we provide a wealth of free content through our website, and our audio program, WIHI.

IHI also works with a wide range of entities — whether health care facilities, entire health care systems, or governments — to help them achieve significant results in quality, safety, and innovation. We collaborate with these change agents on the front lines of care to accelerate improvement in vital areas, including maternal and neonatal health, end-of-life care, avoidable hospital readmissions, waste and cost reduction, person- and family-centered care, and the spread of the Triple Aim.

Chapters in Courses on with Author and Editors

In, on the course page, the Institute of Healthcare Improvement provides a list of contributors. APA cares about authors and editors It does not use credentials or affiliations.  For example, in PS 102 this statement appears under Course Objectives as Contributors.  Make sure to check this page as this information may have changed. 


Frank Federico, RPh, Executive Director, Senior Expert Patient Safety, Institute for Healthcare Improvement

Editor(s): Kathleen Vega, BA, Freelance Writer

This means that an APA citation for an online book with author and editors should be used.  Use the abbreviation Eds. for more than one editor. If just one editor it is Ed. The copyright for the site is 2015. Editors are listed first initial and then last name when used before publication name.  When editors are used in the author position, they are listed like authors. 


  • If no date, use (n. d.).  If a date, use (2009).
  • Title in italics only capitalizing 1) the first word 2) a word after a colon 3) a proper noun/phrase


Author last name, First Initial. (Date). Title of work: Subtitle. In First Initial, Last Name of Editor (Eds.), Name of Work. Retrieved from URL

Federico, F. (2015). Lesson 1: Understanding the science of human factors. In K. Vega (Ed.), PS 102: Human Factors and Safety. Retrieved from

Improvement Stories

The "Improvement Stories" on are a section in a web document. 

  • Cited as a web document
  • If no date listed, use (n.d.)
  • Title in Italics


Organization as Author. (Date). Title of work: Subtitle. Retrieved from URL

Institute for Healthcare Improvement. (n.d.). Putting a spotlight on quality improvement curriculum. Retrieved from

Video and Audio

The video on has a link back to YouTube.  Make sure the video is under user LMSOS, which is the IHI channel on YouTube.. 

  • Cited as video
  • If no date listed, use (n.d.)
  • Title in Italics


Author/Corporate Author. (Date). Title of Video: Subtitle [video]. Retrieved from URL

Institute for Healthcare Improvement. (n.d.). Whiteboard: Deming's system of profound knowledge. Retrieved from 


In, publications take one of two formats:

  • Reprinted from another publication.  The information is listed under the title. This requires an APA citation noting the reprint.
  • Created and used for  There is no reprint information around the title or author. This means should be cited as a  section of a website, same as Improvement Stories.

. Please remember:

  • If no date listed, use (n.d.)
  • Title of article non-italic, title of original publication in italics.


Author Last Name, First Initial. (Date). Title of work: Subtitle. In Editor First Initial, Last Name (Ed.) Name of Publication (Reprinted from Name of Journal/Publication). Retrieved from URL

Miller, R., Winterton, T. & Hoffman, W. (2014, January). Building a whole new mind: An interprofessional experience in patient safety and quality improvement education using the IHI open school. In Institute for Health Improvement. (Reprinted from South Dakota Medicine, 2014). Retrieved from


Poster sessions are often cited as live sessions from actual conferences.  However, on they are part of the website.  These sessions also usually have multiple authors.  In APA, authors are cited last name, first initial.  If there is a series of names it is connected by an ampersand. In APA you list up to 8 authors before using and ellipsis. 

  • If no date, use (n. d.).  
  • Title in italics
  • Addition of a descriptor with title using square brackets. [Posterboard] [Video] [Infrographic] [Table]


Author/Corporate Author. (Date). Title of work: Subtitle [posterboard]. Retrieved from URL

Peterson, M., Shung, D., Ceclia, C., Chou, A., Law, N. & Reece, M. (n.d.). Creating a healthcare improvement program [posterboard]. Retireved from