"In-text" means citing the source of information in the body of the text, for example:
Every time you cite a source in your text there has to be a corresponding citation in the Work Cited page at the end of your essay or assignment.
MLA follows the author-page method
In-text citations are placed within parenthesis and will usually contain the last name of the author and page number.
In-text citations should immediately follow a direct quote.
When paraphrasing, you need to include an in-text citation.
Parenthetical citation is used with paraphrased or direct quote material which then has the "Author page number" at the end of the sentence in parentheses.
Example of a Direct Quote: Use quotation marks to indicate the use of the author's exact words within your paragraph.
The characters in this novel are "distinctly complex and extravagant" (Jones 115).
Before chemical or synthetic fertilizers existed, "all food production worldwide was de facto organic" (Paarlberg 166).
Example of a Paraphrase: A paraphrase is when you take a paragraph that you have read and put it into your own words. You will still need to use an in-text citation as the ideas are not your own.
The beginnings of the organic food movement can be traced back to the early twenty-first century in some European countries such as Austria and England (Paarlberg 58-61).
Example of a Signal Phrase: The author is mentioned in the sentence, page number in parentheses.
In Food Politics, Robert Paarlberg states that "there are some examples of food aid altering the behavior of consumers in recipient countries" (55).
Paarlberg emphasizes the fact that food aid creates dependency (56-61).
When citing images place under the image in-text (including Powepoint slides):
(Fig. #) or (Last Name of artist)
(Fig. 1) or (Warner)
(Fig. #) or ("Title of Image")
(Fig. 2) or ("Orange grove - Clewiston, Florida.")
(Author last name Page number)
(Author Last Name and 2nd Authors last name page number)
(Powel and Conaway 28).
As Powel and Conaway state...(28).
(First Author Last Name et al. page number)
(London et al. 120).
Per London et al. the consequences of these...(120).
(Shortened title of source in quotes and page number)
("Impact of Global Warming" 65).
Use the corporation or organization as author.
(Corporation or Organization page number)
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 7)
(Chapter Author Last Name page number)
Websites are cited the same as other sources in-text, in the (Author page number).
If no author, follow the below guidelines:
Use the name of the presenter or the films director in the in-text citation. This should match up with the citation on your Works Cited page.
Werner Herzog's Fitzcarraldo stars Herzog's long-time film partner, Klaus Kinski. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film.
During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention.
In the two examples above “Herzog” (a film’s director) and “Yates” (a presentor) lead the reader to the first item in each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page:
Herzog, Werner, dir. Fitzcarraldo. Perf. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, 1982.
Yates, Jane. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002. Address.
An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted and include this source on your Works Cited page.
Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" (qtd. in Weisman 259).