"In-text" means citing the source of information in the body of text, for example:
Every time you cite a source in your text, there has to be a corresponding citation in the References page at the end of your essay or assignment.
Parenthetical vs Narrative citation:
Parenthetical citation requires author and date in parentheses (Author last name, date).
Narrative citation incorporates the author name and/or year in the narrative (as part of your sentence.)
Narrative: Huskin (2016) suggests that classroom activities that include writing help students stay engaged.
Narrative: In 2016, Huskin suggests that classroom activities that include writing help students stay engaged.
Parenthetical (paraphrase): Classroom activities that include writing help students stay engaged (Huskin, 2016).
Parenthetical (direct quote): “Writing activities increase students’ learning and engagement” (Huskin, 2016).
Huskin, P. R. (2016). Engagement strategies for increasing student writing success. Education, 136(3), 283–290.
When citing images under the image in-text (including Powepoint slides):
Figure X. An explanation or description of figure. Reprinted [or adapted] from Book Title (page number), by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Last Name, Year, Publisher.
Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted] from Title of Website, by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Last Name, Year, URL.
(Author Last Name, Year)
“Writing activities increase students’ learning and engagement” (Huskin, 2016).
(Author Last Name & Author Last Name, Year)
(D'Amico & Barbarito, 2016) -parenthetical
D'Amico and Barbarito (2016) state... -narrative
*note: use the "&" in parenthetical citation, use "and" in narrative
(Author Last Name et al., Year)
(Landon et al., 2017). -parenthetical
Landon et al. (2017) write... -narrative
*specifically for no author, for organization/owner as author, see next section below.
(Title, date) -parenthetical
Title (date) -narrative
*For in-text citations, use editor names in place of author names.
(Editor Last Name & Editor Last Name, Year).
(Catapano & Critchley, 2016).
*When citing chapter from anthology, use the chapter author as the author, not the editors.
(Chapter Author Last Name, Year).
Websites are cited the same as other sources in-text, in the (Author, Date format).
If no author, follow the below guidelines:
Many reliable resources published by the government, educational institutions or organizations do not have a specific author. In this case, the organization that published the resource becomes the author.
(Organization, date). -parenthetical
Organization (date) -narrative
(Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2020).
*note: following citations of the same source can be shortened to (CDC, 2020).
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020) ...
(Presenter Last Name, Date)
No personal communication is included in the Reference list
Dr. Phyllis Jackson (personal communication, October 1, 2016) felt the salt content in many canned soups was misleading to consumers. -narrative
Dr. Jackson felt the salt content in many canned soups was misleading to consumers (P. Jackson, personal communication, October 1, 2017). -parenthetical
NOTE: Personal Communications do not appear in the References page.