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Writing and Citing: APA 6th Edition: In-Text Citations

A guide to help users create citations using American Psychological Association Style, 6th edition.

General Format


  • In-text citations are placed within the body of the paper.
  • Each citation should correspond to an entry on the References page.
  • General citations follow an author, date, page number format.
  • Page numbers are only required for direct quotation in-text citation, can be omitted for paraphrasing.
  • A signal phrase can be used to introduce the citation, in place of full parenthetical at the end.


APA In Text Citation:

(Author, Date, Page Number).

Quotation: (Duhigg, 2016, p. 48).

Paraphrase: (Duhigg, 2016) OR According to Duhigg (2016), ...

Other Formats


(Presenter Last Name, Date)

Personal Communication (email, interview):

(First Name, Last Name [format of communication], Date).

Citing Images

When citing images under the image in-text (including Powepoint slides):

Basic Format:

Figure X. An explanation or description of figure. Reprinted [or adapted] from Book Title (page number), by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Last Name, Year, Place of Publication: Publisher. 

Figure From a Website:

Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted] from Title of Website, by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Last Name, Year, Retrieved from URL.

Format Variations

Two Authors:

(Author Last Name & Author Last Name, Year).

(Weber & Kelley, 2014).

Three to Seven Authors:

List all authors as they appear in References, with "&" before last author name.

(London, Wieland Ladewig, Davidson, Ball, McGillis Bindler, & Cowen, 2017). 

*Note: subsequent citations can use (London,, 2017). 

More Than Seven Authors:

(Author Last Name,, Year).

Unknown Author:

(Book Title [shortened if needed], Year).

(Merriam-Webster's, 2016).

Organization as Author:

(Name of Organization [acronym], Year).

(American Psychological Association [APA], 2010).

*Note: subsequent citations may use (APA, 2010). 

Edited Book, No Author:

*For in-text citations, use editor names in place of author names.

(Editor Last Name & Editor Last Name, Year).

(Catapano & Critchley, 2016).

Chapter From Anthology:

*When citing chapter from anthology, use the chapter author as the author, not the editors. 

(Chapter Author Last Name, Year).

(Glaspell, 2016).